Meyer and Allen created this model for two reasons: Meyer and Allen's research indicated that there are three "mind sets" which can characterize an employee's commitment to the organization.
Attitudes Toward Work Changing attitudes toward work help explain the changing demographic profile of the American work force. With a college degree increasingly seen as a necessity for the good life, many young people ages 16 to 24 report they are staying out of the labor force to concentrate full time on their education.
At the other end of the work life cycle, older adults are healthier, living longer 17 and more inclined than any time in recent decades to work past the traditional retirement age of A majority of those who do so say they keep working mainly for the intangible rather than the economic rewards, according to the Pew Research Center survey.
However, the survey also finds that the recession appears to be accelerating both of these trends. As the sour economy dries up employment prospects, more than four-in-ten nonworking young people say they have tried without success to find a job.
At the same time, nearly four-in-ten employed adults ages 62 and older 18 say the bad economy has forced them to delay their retirement plans.
And a majority of adults between the ages of 50 and 61 think the recession might cause them to do the same. The survey also has some compelling findings about gender, family and work. The differential tug of family responsibility on men and women is underscored when employed parents are asked about Job attitudes and job satisfaction kind of work schedule they would prefer.
Fully six-in-ten working women with children ages 16 and younger say they would trade their full-time jobs for part-time employment. To measure the attitudes behind the changing demographics of the American workplace, a representative national sample of 1, adults ages 16 and older was interviewed by telephone July 20 to Aug.
For analysis purposes, interviews were conducted with oversamples of young people ages 16 to 24 as well as employed adults aged 65 or older who have not yet retired.
The wide-ranging survey also measures what people value most about working, and the reasons people who are not working do not have jobs. Other questions measure how Americans feel about their jobs and work life in general. Reasons People Work The survey finds that people work for a variety of reasons — some of them economic, some of them social and psychological.
Nearly nine-in-ten working Americans say that a big reason they hold a job is to earn a living and provide for their families. About three-quarters report that one of the reasons they are working is to live independently. Nearly two-thirds say that a big reason they work is to build up a retirement nest egg, earn a pension or qualify for Social Security.
More than half cite health care benefits as a major reason for working.
But more than pocketbook concerns compel people to work. Another survey question that measures the motivation to work in a slightly different way produces a similar result. What are Americans looking for in a job? A good paycheck, of course. In the General Social Survey asked adults how they valued 10 different aspects of a job, including job security, high pay, flexible hours and the opportunity to do interesting work.
Older working adults are the most content: It could be that, in bad economic times, the negative impact on workers in terms of salary freezes, involuntary furloughs and the like are balanced by a greater appreciation that workers feel simply to still have a job.
The remaining three parts of this section examine how these attitudes toward work interact with recent demographic changes in the workplace — and how the recession may be affecting both.
The first part examines the reasons young people are a diminishing presence in the work force and how the increasing value of higher education is influencing decisions to go to work or go to college.
The second part looks at the growing presence of older adults in the work force and explores in more detail the impact of the recession on decisions to retire or continue working. The final part explores how attitudes toward work, family and gender roles affect the working lives of men and women in different ways.
At the same time, a growing proportion of younger people are entering college directly after high school, a trend that directly reduces the number of adults in the labor force at any one time. The recession appears to have had an impact as well.
Minorities, Women More Likely to Value a College Degree The survey finds that women are more likely than men to place a high value on a college education: And while the sample sizes are too small to say with certainty, black women in particular are more likely than black men to consider a college degree a necessity.
Growing Older, Working Longer Americans are working to an older age now than they were just a few years ago, a reflection of a long-term trend toward later retirement and the short-term impact of the recession on retirement nest eggs.
If anything, the bad economy seems likely to accelerate this trend in the near future: The survey finds that a majority of working adults ages 50 to 61 report they may have to delay their retirement because of the economic downturn. They are about twice as likely as their younger and middle-aged colleagues to report being very satisfied with their jobs.
The survey points to a clear explanation: For workers ages 65 and older, the decision to stay on the job is more likely to be discretionary and less likely to be motivated by the need for a paycheck. They are comparatively more likely to be attracted to work by intangible benefits, such as a desire to connect with other people and to have something to do.
The Recession and the Decision to Retire In the past decade, the proportion of older adults in the labor force has been growing steadily. The Pew Research survey suggests the recession may have accelerated this trend. Many older adults, their retirement nest eggs battered by the bad economy, have already opted to hold on to their jobs.Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are two key attitudes that are the most relevant to important outcomes.
Attitudes create an intention to behave in a certain way and may predict actual behavior under certain conditions. Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) is a 36 items assessment of nine facets of job satisfaction (pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating conditions, co-workers, nature of the work and communication), as well as overall job satisfaction.
Dec 03, · How to deal with workplace conflicts - Develop your personality and business skills. - Duration: Skillopedia - Skills for the real world , views. 72 CHAPTER 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction However, in the late s, a review of the research challenged this assumed effect of attitudes on behavior.2 One researcher—Leon Festinger—argued that attitudes follow behavior.
Aziri B. JOB SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE VOL. 3 ISSUE 4 () PP: 77 Management Research and Practice Volume 3, Issue 4 / . While both a job and a career involve getting up and going to work in the morning, there is a huge difference in the mindset of a person holding a job and the mindset of a person with a career.