Effects of centralized vs. Collective bargaining facilitates coordination between unions and employers in wage setting and other aspects of industrial relations.
Decentralization in Latin America Kent Eaton keaton ucsc. Over the last twenty-five years he has lived and worked extensively in Latin America.
Eaton received his Ph. This author does not have any more posts. Download as PDF Abstract Additional countries have turned to federalism in recent years in many world regions, but in Latin America the set of countries with federal institutions has not changed in more than a century.
Despite this stasis, a spate of reforms have otherwise strengthened subnational governments across the region.
As a result, Latin America has become more important than ever as a region in which to ask what difference federalism makes. Introduction Subnational governance in Latin America is characterized by a striking curiosity.
While the region has been home to some of most innovative, comprehensive and radical experiments with decentralization anywhere in the world, the number of countries that define themselves as federal has not changed in more than a century.
Map of Latin America In Latin America, the definition of federalism has been subject to some of the same sharp conceptual disagreements among scholars that we see in other world regions, including whether it requires the election of subnational chief executives or subnational legislatures, and whether it requires the assignment of subnational administrative or fiscal authority.
Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. Stability in this set of countries is especially remarkable in a Centralization vs. decentralization in america essay and in a region that has witnessed such frequent and significant shifts in the balance of power between national and subnational governments.
This stands in sharp contrast to the recent emergence of formal new federal systems elsewhere in the world, from Belgium to Bosnia, Ethiopia to Nepal.
Students of federalism, however, should not be fooled by the apparent stasis in Latin America. As I hope to show in this short essay, while no countries have clearly crossed the line between federal and unitary, decentralization in Latin America in the last three decades has undoubtedly made federal countries more federal and unitary countries less unitary as these terms are generally understood.
Across the region, decentralization has significantly blurred the distinction between federal and unitary countries — even if no new federations have formally emerged. Making Federal Countries More Federal The decision to endorse federalism in 19th century Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela was the outcome of important institutional bargains and inter-regional conflicts in each country.
Federal designs intended to protect subnational prerogatives from the centre fell victim to military-led authoritarianism in Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela, and to seven decades of civilian authoritarianism in Mexico.
Against this backdrop, decentralization has breathed new life into long-established federal institutions. Venezuela is perhaps the most complex of the four cases. One of the big selling points of decentralization is that it creates space for the emergence of new parties representing formerly underrepresented groups and interests.
Just as importantly, decentralization can boost the prospects of existing parties — on the left and right of the ideological spectrum — that were previously unable to win national electoral contests. The Brazilian and Mexican federations are instructive here. In addition to the party system, that federal countries have become more federal in Latin America can also be seen in ongoing struggles over public policy and regime type.
With respect to public policy, national governments in federal systems now have to work much harder to build the kinds of territorial coalitions that are increasingly necessary for policy adoption and implementation. According to Niedzwiecki, opposition governors who cannot share credit for policy gains with the national government will instead do what they can to undermine policy implementation.
In Argentina and Mexico, important new books by Ed Gibson and Agustina Giraudy have documented how federal institutions can actually bolster the position of subnational autocrats despite the federal level transition to democracy.
Making Unitary Countries Less Unitary Turning from federal to unitary systems, decentralization has yet to produce the formal federalization of a single unitary country in Latin America.
In Colombia, which experienced turbulent periods of federalism in the 19th century before adopting a highly centralist and unitary constitution inconcerted movement in a decentralizing direction in the s and s stopped short of federalism.
Territorial autonomy — and not federalism — is likewise the demand articulated by indigenous communities in unitarian Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. The cumulative effects of decentralizing changes may not convert unitary systems into federations anytime soon in Latin America, but decentralization has nonetheless pushed many unitary countries in a federal direction in ways that have called into question the distinction between federal and unitary.
Traditionally in Latin America, unitary countries only had two tiers of government national and municipaland robust intermediate or regional governments were considered the preserve of federal systems.Effects of centralized vs. decentralized; Effects of centralized vs. decentralized In the essay I will highlight the effects that this two bargaining structures have on wages, inflation, strikes, the bargaining process, and the negotiation process and their influence on the industrial relations system as a whole.
the level at which. Centralization vs. Decentralization in America. Federalism. Is most of the power of America given to the states, or to the national government? Topics: United States, National Vs State Rights Essay National versus.
Jun 30, · An organizational structure is the outline of a company’s framework and guidelines for managing business operations. Small business owners are . Centralization vs.
Decentralization in America. Federalism. Is most of the power of America given to the states, or to the national government?/5(7). The centralization vs decentralization debate is still very much alive.
We discuss the pros and cons to both approaches to political organization. Basics of Centralized vs. Decentralized Model Organizations generally take one of two approaches to analytics and reporting. One is a centralized model, where the analytics group is its own entity, independent of any particular group.