Consequently, various ethnic groups were formed such as the Calaicians or Gallaeci of northern Portugal, Cynetes or COnii of the Algarve, the Celtici of Alentejo, and the Lusitanians of central Portugal. For almost years, the peninsula was nearly annexed to the Roman Empire. By the start of the 5th century, Germanic tribes occupied the peninsula with the Visigoths as successful conquerors. Between the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal was an important European power of having equal status with Spain, France, and England.
What it is, what it does, and why some countries are planning on leaving it. Land The Gambia is a strip of land 15 to 30 miles 25 to 50 km wide on either side of the Gambia River and extends almost miles km into the interior; except for a short coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, it is entirely surrounded by Senegal.
It flows across a plateau of Miocene-Pliocene sandstone consisting of compacted sediment composed predominantly of quartz grains formed from about In the east, narrow valleys are separated by broad interfluves or flattish hills. In the west, lower and smaller sand hills alternate with depressions filled in with sand to form a flat plain.
Near the coast the rainy season lasts longer, and the rainfall is heavier, diminishing eastward. At Yundum the average annual rainfall is about 50 inches 1, mmand the mean monthly temperature tends to be in the upper 70s F mids Cwhile at Basse Santa Suabout miles km inland, the comparable figures are about 40 inches 1, mm and the low 80s F upper 20s C.
The relative humidity is high but drops from December to April, when the dry northeastern wind known as the harmattan is dominant. Plant and animal life The vegetation cover of The Gambia is savanna on the uplands, various kinds of inland swamp in the low-lying areas, and mangrove swamp along the brackish lower Gambia River.
Few wild animals are native to the region, and those that survive are under pressure from the human and domestic animal populations.
In the middle and upper river areas there are warthogs, monkeys, baboons, antelope, pygmy hippopotamuses, and crocodiles. In addition, more than species of birds live throughout the country. People Ethnic groups The river basin was a focal point for migrating groups of people escaping the turmoil of western Sudanic wars dating from the 12th century.
The Diola Jola are the people longest resident in the country; they are now located mostly in western Gambia. The largest group is the Malinkecomprising about one-third of the population.
The Wolofwho are the dominant group in Senegal, also predominate in Banjul. The Fulani settled the extreme upriver areas, and their kingdom, Fuladu, became a major power in the late 19th century. The Soninkean admixture of Malinke and Fulani, are also concentrated in the upriver areas.
Mandinka and Wolof constitute the lingua francas of the country, and other languages spoken include Pulaar FulbeSererDiola, and Soninke.
Some Muslim clerics are literate in Arabic. Religion The population is overwhelmingly Muslim. There are a small number of Christians—predominantly Roman Catholic—and some adherents of traditional beliefs.
Settlement patterns Human settlement in The Gambia extends across both banks of the river and is found in three regions: Most rural settlement is concentrated on the uplands, which have the best-drained soils. A number of settlements are located in the banto faros on the middle course of the river, where there is less danger of flooding than in the swamps.
Many villages are built on the boundary between the uplands and the riverine flats. More than half of the population lives in urban areas. The major urban concentration is around Banjulthe capital, and several large urban centres have developed in the vicinity.
Urban dwellers retain close ties to their rural relatives, and there is considerable interaction between rural and urban populations. Migration to urban areas has remained steady since the s.
The GambiaMerchants selling produce at a traditional market in Farafenni, Gambia. Life expectancy is comparable to the regional average but lower than that of the world.
Age breakdown Economy Agriculture, forestry, and fishing Gambian agriculture can be described as a classic monoculture; peanuts groundnuts are the most valuable agricultural commodity.
Land is cleared by the slash-and-burn technique, but farmers practice conservation. Most land is held in common by the villagers. There is a sharp division of labourwith men involved in planting, cultivatingand harvesting cash crops while women cultivate subsistence crops such as cassava maniocyams, eggplant, tomatoes, rice, and lentils.
There are citrus orchards in the western area near Banjul. Men sifting peanuts in baskets, Georgetown, Gambia. Photo Research International The production of peanuts has increased with the wider use of fertilizers and ox-drawn equipment and the introduction of better seeds.
In order to diversify the economy, the government has encouraged the production of rice. A pilot scheme was begun in the mids to introduce plantation oil palm production, but this has had little impact on the national economy.
Stock farming, always a factor in the Fulani culturehas also received government support, but factors such as insufficient animal husbandry techniques and the scarcity of suitable pasture and water have limited the size of herds.Franklin D.
Roosevelt's visit to the Gambia in was the first visit by a sitting US President to the African continent. the Songhai Empire, under constant assault by Portugal, collapsed. The name Gambia comes from the Portuguese word for trade, James Island stopped playing any part in the history of the Gambia.
HISTORY OF THE GAMBIA Senegal and Gambia rivers The Gambia Protectorate Independence. Share | Discover in a free daily email today's famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily. The Senegal and Gambia rivers: to with all colonies in Africa heading towards independence, Britain assumes that the Gambia .
portugal's african colonies One of the great ironies in the history of European colonialism is that the small country of Portugal established one of the first colonial empires and then retained its colonial possessions well .
Gambia became independent in with David Jawara as its first prime minister and for the first 10 years of independence Gambia was a prosperous country. The price of groundnuts was high and tourists flocked to the country. A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, drawing particularly on historical scholarship postdating the Portuguese Revolution, offers readers a comprehensive overview and reinterpretation of how all this happened - the first such account to appear in English for more than a generation.
Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17thth century. Books on Dutch Colonial History, Dutch colonial empire. Africa. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17thth century. Posted by: Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17thth century.